Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research <p><strong><em>Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research (JBCR)</em></strong> is a peer reviewed, multidisciplinary scientific journal of Medical University - Pleven, open to scientists from all fields of medicine and related areas.</p> <p><strong><em>JBCR</em></strong> publishes reviews, original articles and communications in the field of biomedical, clinical, public health and health care research, medical education, case reports, written in English. <strong><em>JBCR</em></strong> is published two times per year.</p> <p> </p> Medical University -Pleven en-US Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research 1313-6917 Very important topic <p>dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd.</p> Peter Petrov Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 1 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMOTILITY OF OUTER HAIR CELL LATERAL WALL <p>The aim of this work was to describe unique ultrastructural organization of the outer hair cell lateral wall. The molecular mechanism of electromotility is unknown but it is clear that the composition of plasma membrane, orientation of actin and spectrin molecules of <br>the cytoskeleton and interaction between them could be important for the electromotile response of outer hair cells. Active cochlear mechanisms amplify movement along the basilar membrane and transmit mechanical information to the inner hair cell, thus improving audio perception capabilities in mammals. Outer hair cells have a complex trilaminar lateral wall composed of plasma <br>membrane, highly organized cytoskeleton and subsurface cisternae, which form axial cylinders inserted into each other around the cell core. Recent discoveries have shown that a key component in the electromotility of outer hair cells is a motor protein prestin that is found in the cytoplasmic membrane of outer hair cells. Cytoskeleton nanostructure shows that it is not complete and uninterrupted, and is composed of separate domains, oriented to each other at different angles. Protein pillars are situated between the invaginations of the plasma membrane and actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. The innermost layer of the lateral cell is made up by subsurface cisternae associated with mitochondria&nbsp;</p> Emilyan A. Ivanov Copyright (c) 2008 MU-Pleven 2008-06-01 2008-06-01 1 1 5 11 CHRONIC PAIN AND PHYSICAL ANALGESIA: THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL MODALITIES TO REDUCE PAIN <p>The current paper proposes personal opm10ns on some contemporaneous theories of pain and therapeutic concepts of analgesia, including physical analgesia. Millions of patients suffer from chronic pain. All modern scheduled drugs used for the treatment of persistent pain (opioids, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors) are associated with limitations and side effects. Our purpose was to remind the wide public of the impact of physical modalities in pain management in adults. We explain different natural and preformed physical modalities, with effectiveness in clinical practice. The author formulates a conception of pathogenetic mechanisms of physical analgesia. Declared opinions and conclusions of the author are based on the traditions of Bulgarian rehabilitation school, on analysis of scientific literature (including electronic media), on our modest 20 years experience - clinical observations, scientific and applied investigations; and on the results from systematic interviews with in-patients (treated in the National Physical therapy and rehabilitation hospital (Sofia) and in the Rehabilitation Clinic of Pleven University Hospital) and with outpatients (of some Medical centers of Sofia and Pleven).</p> Ivet Koleva Copyright (c) 2008 MU-Pleven 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 1 1 12 17 EMERGENCE OF CLINICAL STRAINS OF Stenotrophomonas maltophilia RESISTANT TO TRIMETHOPRIM/SULFAMETHOXAZOLE IN A BULGARIAN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL <p>Clinical strains of <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia,</em> identified by a commercial system as resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), were analyzed in detail, to confirm their taxonomic positions, to determine their susceptibilities to various classes of antibiotics, and to assess this information with respect to the epidemiological relevance. The majority of strains were isolated from respiratory and wound specimens from patients admitted tointensive care units. Multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and gyrase subunit B <em>(gyrB)</em> genes were applied for genotypic-based characterization. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ten antimicrobial agents were determined, using the E-test method. The MIC values of TMP/SMX for the clinical isolates of <em>S.</em> <em>maltophilia </em>were greater than 32 mg/L, which confirmed their preliminary assessment as resistant. Minocycline, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin exhibited the lowest MICs. All strains were observed to be susceptible to minocycline and levofloxacin. The emergence of clinical strains of <em>S. maltophilia </em>resistant to TMP/SMX is increasingly problematic as this antimicrobial agent is accepted as the "drug of choice" for treating infections caused by this bacterium. However, minocycline and levofloxacin demonstrated excellent <em>in-vitro</em> activities and could be considered as alternative options to counter TMP/SMX-resistant &nbsp;strains of <em>S. maltophilia.</em></p> Sashka Mihaylova Mariya Sredkova Liselott Svensson Edward Moore Copyright (c) 2008 MU-Pleven 2008-07-08 2008-07-08 1 1 18 25